Job Crafting and the Role of Self-efficacy and Engagement in the Academic Jobs

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Assistant Professor, Management faculty, Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies, Tehran, Iran

2 PhD Candidate, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Management and Accounting, College of Farabi, University of Tehran, Qom, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: Job crafting is the process of making proactive changes in the boundaries
composing a job, which are known as mental fences that individuals adopt to define their job’s
physical, emotional, or cognitive limitations. Job crafting considers the change in the nature
of jobs, whether realistically in the form of task crafting and relational crafting, or as cognitive
perceptions. In this study, the role of self-efficacy as the antecedent and work engagement as
the consequence of job crafting was studied.
Methods: The jobs were academic and the sample was selected from faculty members of
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The research questionnaires were distributed among
faculty members of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. A PLS model is analyzed and
interpreted in two stages: the assessment of the reliability and validity of the measurement
model, and the assessment of the structural model.
Results: The results showed that self-efficacy was positively related to all dimensions of
job crafting. Moreover, the triple dimensions of job crafting had a significant positive
effect on work engagement. The moderating role of gender and academic level in the
relationship between self-efficacy and work engagement was confirmed. However, the
results showed that gender did not moderate the relationship between self-efficacy and
task crafting.
Conclusion: The main novelty of this research is the study of job crafting, self-efficacy and
engagement variables considering the moderating role of gender and academic level.